Under this theory, there are six dimensions of national culture that have been identified. Here is a look at those six dimensions and what it means for the modern workplace. Power Distance This cultural dimension is an expression of how people without power in a society accept and even expect unequal distribution.
The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov and their research teams. The application of this research is used worldwide in both academic and professional management settings.
Dimensions of national culture: The Hofstede model of national culture consists of six dimensions. The cultural dimensions represent independent preferences for one state of affairs over another that distinguish countries rather than individuals from each other.
The country scores on the dimensions are relative, in that we are all human and simultaneously we are all unique.
In other words, culture can only be used meaningfully by comparison. The model consists of the following dimensions: Power Distance Index PDI This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.
The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people. People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification.
In societies with low Power Distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. Individualism versus Collectivism IDV The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families.
Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular ingroup to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.
Uncertainty Avoidance Index UAI The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity.
The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour, and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.
Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.
Geert Hofstede added a fifth Dimension after conducting an additional international study with a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers. That Dimension, based on Confucian dynamism, is Long-Term Orientation - LTO and was applied to 23 countries. Start studying Geert Hofstede 5 dimensions of culture. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This dimension was only added recently, so it lacks the depth of data of the first four dimensions. However, in general terms, countries that score highly for PRA tend to be pragmatic, modest, long-term oriented, and more thrifty.
Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation LTO Every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and the future. Societies prioritize these two existential goals differently.
Societies who score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion.
|Geert Hofstede - Wikipedia||Management Six Dimensions of Culture under the Geert Hofstede model Renowned psychologist Dr Geert Hofstede, conducted one of the most extensive studies on the influence of culture on workplace values. Research has highlighted the importance of culture as a significant force in the context of business.|
|Header Right||Emphasis on reciprocation of gifts, favors, and greetings; Negative association with economic growth. Restraint The dimension of indulgence vs.|
|Compare countries - Hofstede Insights||Between andhe executed a large survey study regarding national values differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of this multinational corporation: He first focused his research on the 40 largest countries, and then extended it to 50 countries and 3 regions, "at that time probably the largest matched-sample cross-national database available anywhere.|
|Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory - Wikipedia||Between andhe executed a large survey study regarding national values differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of this multinational corporation: He first focused his research on the 40 largest countries, and then extended it to 50 countries and 3 regions, "at that time probably the largest matched-sample cross-national database available anywhere.|
|National Culture - Hofstede Insights||Biography[ edit ] Born to Gerrit and Evertine G. After working in the industry for ten years, Hofstede entered part-time doctoral study at Groningen University in The Netherlands, and received his PhD in social psychology cum laude in|
Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: In the academic environment, the terminology Monumentalism versus Flexhumility is sometimes also used. Indulgence versus Restraint IND Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun.
Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms. He analysed a large database of employee value scores collected within IBM between and The data covered more than 70 countries, from which Hofstede first used the 40 countries with the largest groups of respondents and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions.ODE Consulting is a Singapore-based consultancy licensed by Geert Hofstede bv for using the CWQ..
The CWQ is the 'Culture in the Workplace Questionnaire' application, an indicative individual-level tool for assessing one’s cultural values.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to .
Geert Hofstede and cultural-dimensions theory—an overview.
Geert Hofstede is a Dutch social psychologist and anthropologist who has studied the interactions between cultures. Geert Hofstede added a fifth Dimension after conducting an additional international study with a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers.
That Dimension, based on Confucian dynamism, is Long-Term Orientation - LTO and was applied to 23 countries. For the overlapping countries a correlation analysis was done between the five factor scores of the Ng et al. reanalysis and the four dimension scores of Hofstede. This correlation analysis revealed that each of Hofstede's dimensions can be distinctly identified in the Ng et al.
data as well. Compare countries Please select a country in the dropdown menu below to see the values for the 6 dimensions. After a first country has been selected, a second and even a third country can be chosen to be able to see a comparison of their scores.