Martin Heidegger[ edit ] Martin Heidegger rejected the philosophical basis of the concepts of "subjectivity" and "objectivity" and asserted that similar grounding oppositions in logic ultimately refer to one another. Instead of resisting the admission of this paradox in the search for understanding, Heidegger requires that we embrace it through an active process of elucidation he called the " hermeneutic circle ".
Quick revise Absolutism Absolutism is making normative ethical decisions based on objective rules. It maintains that some things are always right and some things are always wrong.
They are fixed for all time, places and people. A common example of Absolutism is Kantian Ethics. Advantages of Absolutism It allows moral rules to be evaluated critically. It is fair as people are treated the same as the rules are the same for everyone. If a moral rule is right, then there would be no need to have different rules for different people because the absolute rules are universal.
Disadvantages of Absolutism Sometimes it is not appropriate to treat people the same due to circumstances that arise due to situations. Life is not simply 'black and white' and as this is the case, it is simply not right to make everyone live by the same rules.
Relativism Relativism says that nothing is intrinsically right or wrong. Some believe that all human circumstances are different and therefore there is a need to have different moral rules for people. Cultural Relativism says that different countries - or even areas within a country - have different values, for example, Muslims expect women to cover up at least some of their bodies.
It affirms the idea 'when in Rome do as the Romans do'. It allows there to be variety in different cultures. However, as there are no overriding standard to compare cultures to, noone can say that one culture is better than another because of what they believe - this could be either an advantage or a disadvantage.
Moral truths are no more than subjective feelings about behaviour which can therefore never achieve the status of fact as they are the result of ways of life and opinions which vary from culture to culture or person to person depending on circumstances.
Historical Relativism This says that what was right one hundred years ago may not be right in the present day because times and society have moved on. Society also accepts the need to change sets of rules which used to be sufficient in previous times. Advantages of Relativism It allows for the diversity that is present in the world.
It understands that life is not black and white. Cultures may believe that their practices are more justifiable than other cultural practices, but by using a relativist approach, this will allow for acceptance between different peoples. For example, the Nazis believed that they were right to kill millions of Jews, homosexuals and disabled people: Cultural Relativists would not be able to criticise the Nazis as they believe that all cultures have views of equal worth.
For example if a culture allows wife-beating, then cultural relativism would also have to say that wife-beating is morally acceptable.
It may be more difficult to decide when the rules need changing in different circumstances.Explain the difference between moral absolutism and relativism (25) There are two different ways in distinguishing whether something is right or wrong within ethics.
Absolutism is a deontological theory, which determines whether an action is intrinsically right or wrong. n the differences between absolute and relative morality Relativism and absolutism are two ethical theories that strongly differ in beliefs and opinions. A relativist person would believe that there are no absolute universal truths, truth is relative to the subject and can differ from person to person and society to society.
Relativism considers the outcome of choices; a relativist will generally make decisions . MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY. Remarks concerning twelve modern philosophers, from Francis Bacon to Bertrand Russell, and presenting a citizen standpoint involving a concluding discussion of science, one relating to the "against method" controversy associated with Paul Feyerabend.
The Blog of Scott Aaronson If you take just one piece of information from this blog: Quantum computers would not solve hard search problems instantaneously by simply trying all the possible solutions at once.
The Value Structure of Action. The distinctions between means and ends, and between being and doing, result in the following structure of action, from beginning to middle to end, upon which much ethical terminology, and the basic forms of ethical theory (ethics of . A "general statement" "intended to develop a unified conceptual scheme for theory and research in the social sciences" was published by nine USA social scientists in Theory was to be based on a "theory of action" in which "the point of reference of all terms is the action of an individual actor or collective of actors".